2017世紀日食:美國人見證天文奇景

2017世紀日食:美國人見證天文奇景喬納森·阿莫斯(JonathanAmos)BBC科技事務記者2017年8月22日,瀏覽器將打開另一個窗口關上分享窗口你的器材不支持播放多媒體材料全美各州見證了巨大的月影在太陽前面掠過。一場近百年一遇的日全食奇景令全美國矚目。從西岸的俄勒岡到東岸的南卡羅萊納,全美各州見證了巨大的月影在太陽前面掠過。數以百萬計的民眾趕到有月球陰影的地方,戴上保護眼鏡察看天空奇景。這是38年來美國本土48州第一次看到日全食,也是自1918年以來第一次橫跨東西岸。在冰島欣賞難得一見的極地夜空圖輯:萬米高空看世界——美妙無比圖片版權ReutersImagecaption趕來卡本代爾的人們並沒有失望圖片版權Imagecaption美國總統特朗普和夫人在華盛頓觀看日食日食奇景在當地時間10:16(17:16GMT)率先在俄勒岡州開始出現。很多觀天人士聚集在沿海的沙灘和城鎮,觀看太陽光盤被月球完全摭蓋長達兩分鐘。而且,在全食發生之前和之後,他們還短暫地看到了一些日全食的經典奇觀。包括所謂的「倍裏珠」(Baily’sbeads),即當部分太陽光從月球邊緣崎嶇的地形穿過時產生的光線;還有所謂的「鑽石指環」,即日全食即將發生前和剛結束後看到的一個較強光環出現在圓環的邊緣。從俄勒岡州開始,日食奇景先後出現在愛達荷、蒙大拿、懷俄明、內布拉斯加、堪薩斯、愛荷華、密蘇里、伊利諾、肯塔基、田納西、佐治亞、北卡羅萊納和南卡羅萊納州。整個過程大約用了90分鐘。圖片版權EPAImagecaption用土製「針孔」機是看日食最安全的方法圖片版權NASAImagecaption空間站太空人內斯保利在外太空拍攝到了月影沿這條路線周邊的小城鎮和國家公園都擠滿了來訪者。在伊利諾州卡本代爾,城市當局將他們的所在地標榜為「日全食路線的十字路口」,因為這裏不僅會在周一看到全食,將在2024年出現的下一次全食也能在這裏。一如所料,卡本代爾吸引了大批觀天者,他們很好地利用了這一次日全食機會,特別安排了6萬個額外停車位。這裏還有另一個優勢,就是能夠看到全美國最長的全食黑影時段,剛剛超過2分40秒。圖片版權GettyImages大西洋海岸城市查爾斯頓則是最後一個看到這一次日食的地方。海灘遊人在當地時間14:48分(18:48GMT)看到全食景觀。只有在美國能看到這一次日全食,但是日偏食也能在整個北美洲看得到,向北能一直延伸到加拿大的北極圈,向南則能夠到達南美洲玻利維亞。在華盛頓,總統唐納德·特朗普(DonaldTrump)和第一夫從梅拉妮婭,以及他們的兒子巴倫(Barron)也戴上了保護眼鏡一起觀天。圖片版權METEOSAT2017/Processedby@simon_rp84Imagecaption月影(圖左的黑點)漸漸離開美國本土——歐洲氣象衛星拍攝的圖片西歐的某些地方也能看到月球「吃」掉太陽的一小部分。雖然只是咬掉一小口,但是在雲量較少的法國和加那利群島,這同樣稱得上是奇觀。而那些不在月影路線上或者被惡劣天氣遮擋的人們,則總還可以上網看。美國太空總署從多個位置拍攝並直播日食畫面,有一些還是通過氫氣球拍攝。其中一些最令人驚嘆的畫面是來自太空軌道上的拍攝。意大利太空人保羅·內斯保利(PaoloNespoli)從國際空間站俯瞰到了移動的月影。而氣象衛星也從距離地方36000公里的「駐地」傳回一些令人震撼的畫面。下一次在地球觀察到的日全食將於2019年7月2日出現在南太平洋、智利以及阿根廷上空。看看我們的日食計算器Yourbrowserdoesnotsupporttheeclipsecalculator.Whenisthenexteclipse?EnteryourcountryResetCalculatorNextSolarEclipsesTotalsolareclipse2countries-2Jul2019Partialsolareclipse4countries-15Feb2018Annularsolareclipse10countries-26Dec2019Hybridsolareclipse2countries-20April2023ReadmorefromNasa@-moz-keyframesgel-spin{0%{-moz-transform:rotate(0deg)}100%{-moz-transform:rotate(360deg)}}@-webkit-keyframesgel-spin{0%{-webkit-transform:rotate(0deg)}100%{-webkit-transform:rotate(360deg)}}@-ms-keyframesgel-spin{0%{-ms-transform:rotate(0deg)}100%{-ms-transform:rotate(360deg)}}@keyframesgel-spin{0%{transform:rotate(0deg)}100%{transform:rotate(360deg)}}.bbc-news-visual-journalism-loading-spinner{display:block;margin:8pxauto;width:32px;height:32px;max-width:32px;fill:#323232;-webkit-animation-name:gel-spin;-webkit-animation-duration:1s;-webkit-animation-iteration-count:infinite;-webkit-animation-timing-function:linear;-moz-animation-name:gel-spin;-moz-animation-duration:1s;-moz-animation-iteration-count:infinite;-moz-animation-timing-function:linear;animation-name:gel-spin;animation-duration:1s;animation-iteration-count:infinite;animation-timing-function:linear;}html.bbc-news-vj-wrapper{font-family:Helmet,Freesans,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;}/*supportfull-screenapps*/.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapper–full-screen{position:fixed;top:0;left:0;right:0;bottom:0;background-color:white;z-index:9999;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapper–full-screen>iframe{height:100vh;}/*Applysomedefaultstylingforcorecontent*/.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperhtml,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperaddress,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperblockquote,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperbody,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperdd,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperdiv,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperdl,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperdt,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperfieldset,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperform,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperframe,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperframeset,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperh1,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperh2,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperh3,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperh4,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperh5,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperh6,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrappernoframes,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperol,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperp,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperul,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrappercenter,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperdir,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperhr,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrappermenu,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperpre{display:block;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperli{display:list-item;padding:0.2em;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperhead{display:none;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrappertable{display:table;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrappertr{display:table-row;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperthead{display:table-header-group;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrappertbody{display:table-row-group;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrappertfoot{display:table-footer-group;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrappercol{display:table-column;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrappercolgroup{display:table-column-group;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrappertd,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperth{display:table-cell;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrappercaption{display:table-caption;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperth{font-weight:bolder;text-align:center;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrappercaption{text-align:center;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperh1{font-size:2em;margin:0.67em0;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperh2{font-size:1.5em;margin:0.75em0;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperh3{font-size:1.4em;margin:0.83em0;margin-top:2em;}.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperh4,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperp,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperblockquote,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperul,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperfieldset,.bbc-news-vj-iframe-wrapperform,.bbc-news-vj-ifra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