10個數字讓你了解:津巴布韋到底發生了什麼

10個數字讓你了解:津巴布韋到底發生了什麼2017年11月22日,瀏覽器將打開另一個窗口關上分享窗口在位近四十年,津巴布韋總統羅伯特·穆加貝(RobertMugabe)在軍事接管後受到軟禁。這裏有10個數字,可以幫助你了解這個國家是如何走到今天這個地步的。1=過去37年的領袖人數今年93歲的穆加貝領導了津巴布韋的解放運動,1980年津巴布韋獨立後便一直在位。他最初就任總理一職,直到1987年該國轉變為總統制。圖片版權/GettyImages但穆加貝的領導人生涯卻以經濟危機和打壓異見人士為特點。他和他的支持者們以暴力和謀殺為選舉策略,從而掌權如此之久。圖輯:羅伯特·穆加貝的漫長政治生涯津巴布韋穆加貝夫婦的香港緣:購物、置業和官非2.31億%=2008年6月通貨膨脹2000年開始土地改革後,津巴布韋的經濟開始陷入困境。根據津巴布韋的土地改革,白人的農場被重新分配給沒有土地的本國黑人和政治關係良好的人,這項計劃導致津巴布韋的生產急劇下滑。儘管津巴布韋中央銀行試圖加印鈔票以擺脫危機,但惡性通貨膨脹卻從此生根。儘管世界銀行沒有2008年和2009年的數據,但津巴布韋央行的數據顯示,2008年6月該國的年度通貨膨脹達到2.31億%。2008年11月中期,這一數字達到頂峰,幾乎突破800億%,官方甚至放棄了月度統計數據。一年後,津巴布韋元對美元的匯率高達35千萬億:1,津巴布韋被迫放棄使用本國貨幣。$163億=2016年GDP世界銀行數據顯示,2000年到2008年的政治經濟危機幾乎使津巴布韋的GDP減半,這也是和平時期經濟體的最大緊縮。世界銀行表示,該國2009-2012的短暫恢復期已經結束,現在津巴布韋的經濟面臨嚴峻挑戰。由於貿易變化和一系列重大乾旱,那裏的年均經濟增長率已經從2009-2012的8%明顯放緩。穆加貝總是將津巴布韋的經濟問題歸罪於西方國家的陰謀,他認為由於他沒收了白人農場主的土地,以英國為首的西方國家想要趕他下台。@-webkit-keyframesspinnerRotate{from{-webkit-transform:rotate(0deg);}to{-webkit-transform:rotate(360deg);}}@-moz-keyframesspinnerRotate{from{-moz-transform:rotate(0deg);}to{-moz-transform:rotate(360deg);}}@-ms-keyframesspinnerRotate{from{-ms-transform:rotate(0deg);}to{-ms-transform:rotate(360deg);}}.bbc-news-visual-journalism-loading-spinner{display:block;margin:10pxauto;width:33px;height:33px;max-width:33px;-webkit-animation-name:spinnerRotate;-webkit-animation-duration:5s;-webkit-animation-iteration-count:infinite;-webkit-animation-timing-function:linear;-moz-animation-name:spinnerRotate;-moz-animation-duration:5s;-moz-animation-iteration-count:infinite;-moz-animation-timing-function:linear;-ms-animation-name:spinnerRotate;-ms-animation-duration:5s;-ms-animation-iteration-count:infinite;-ms-animation-timing-function:linear;background-image:url(‘data:image/gif;base64,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’);}Clicktoseecontent:chinese_zim_gdp_ws_languages74%=每天生活費低於$5.5的人口數津巴布韋的政治和經濟危機導致該國貧困率走高。根據世界銀行統計,2000到2008年的艱難時期內,該國的貧困率增長到72%以上。同時國內五分之一的人口陷於極度貧困。外界認為2009-2014年間津巴布韋的極度貧困率曾出現下降,但現在又呈現持續增長勢頭。@mediaonlyscreenand(min-width:1px){.ns_datapic_stat–chinese-zim-poverty-ws-languages.ns_outer_wrapper{background-image:none;}.ns_datapic_stat–chinese-zim-poverty-ws-languages.ns_outer_wrapper.ns_inner_wrapper{max-width:100%;padding:0;}}@mediaonlyscreenand(min-width:480px){.ns_datapic_stat–chinese-zim-poverty-ws-languages.ns_outer_wrapper.ns_inner_wrapper{max-width:47%;padding:0.5em;}.ns_datapic_stat–chinese-zim-poverty-ws-languages.ns_outer_wrapper{background-image:url(https://news.files.bbci.co.uk/vj/live/idt-images/data_pic-zim_poverty/zim_poverty_getty_976_v6a40.png);}}.ie8.ns_datapic_stat–chinese-zim-poverty-ws-languages.ns_outer_wrapper.ns_inner_wrapper{max-width:47%;padding:0.5em;}.ie8.ns_datapic_stat–chinese-zim-poverty-ws-languages.ns_outer_wrapper{background-image:url(https://news.files.bbci.co.uk/vj/live/idt-images/data_pic-zim_poverty/zim_poverty_getty_976_v6a40.png);}高貧困率21%人口陷於極度貧困(2011),每天花費不超過$1.9047%人口每天開銷不超過$3.2074%人口每天開銷不超過$5.50出處:世界銀行2011年最新資料GettyImages2015津巴布韋人口與健康調查報告顯示,5歲以下兒童中大約有27%發育遲緩,9%由於營養不良嚴重發育遲緩。但世界銀行數據顯示,津巴布韋的貧困率仍然低於其他撒哈拉以南非洲國家,2013年,撒哈拉以南非洲地區41%的人口每天花費不足$1.90。90%=關於失業率的一種說法關於津巴布韋失業率的說法千差萬別。世界銀行根據國際勞工組織數據估算,2016年津巴布韋失業率僅為5%,但津巴布韋最大工會聲稱失業率高達90%。但是世界銀行對失業者的定義僅包括積極”尋找”工作的人。許多沒有被計算在內的人可能仍然想要工作,但由於他們”認為工作機會十分有限,或者面臨勞動力流動受限、歧視或者結構性、社會或文化上的障礙”,所以沒有尋找工作。CIA《世界概況》則認為該國2009年失業率為95%,但也表示現階段數字尚未可知。89%=成年人識字率由於獨立後對教育的巨大投資,津巴布韋是非洲成年人識字率最高的國家之一,世界銀行2014年的數據顯示這一數字為89%。2016年全球識字率為86%,而撒哈拉以南非洲地區的識字率為64%(2015年數字)。@mediaonlyscreenand(min-width:1px){.ns_datapic_stat–chinese-zim-literacy-ws-languages.ns_outer_wrapper{background-image:none;}.ns_datapic_stat–chinese-zim-literacy-ws-languages.ns_outer_wrapper.ns_inner_wrapper{max-width:100%;padding:0;}}@mediaonlyscreenand(min-width:480px){.ns_datapic_stat–chinese-zim-literacy-ws-languages.ns_outer_wrapper.ns_inner_wrapper{max-width:45%;padding:0.5em;}.ns_datapic_stat–chinese-zim-literacy-ws-languages.ns_outer_wrapper{background-image:url(https://news.files.bbci.co.uk/vj/live/idt-images/data_pic-zim_literacy/zimbabwe_school_getty_976_efujj.png);}}.ie8.ns_datapic_stat–chinese-zim-literacy-ws-languages.ns_outer_wrapper.ns_inner_wrapper{max-width:45%;padding:0.5em;}.ie8.ns_datapic_stat–chinese-zim-literacy-ws-languages.ns_outer_wrapper{background-image:url(https://news.files.bbci.co.uk/vj/live/idt-images/data_pic-zim_literacy/zimbabwe_school_getty_976_efujj.png);}津巴布韋的教育89%成年人識字率90%入學人員完成小學教育(2013)44%中學適齡兒童入學接受中等教育(2013)出處:世界銀行GettyImages13.5%=成年人艾滋病患病率津巴布韋的艾滋病患病率在撒哈拉以南非洲地區位列第六。根據聯合國艾滋病聯合規劃署2016年數據,該國有130萬人患有艾滋病。然而在1997年的高峰期過後,這一數字正在下降。@-webkit-keyframesspinnerRotate{from{-webkit-transform:rotate(0deg);}to{-webkit-transform:rotate(360deg);}}@-moz-keyframesspinnerRotate{from{-moz-transform:rotate(0deg);}to{-moz-transform:rotate(360deg);}}@-ms-keyframesspinnerRotate{from{-ms-transform:rotate(0deg);}to{-ms-transform:rotate(360deg);}}.bbc-news-visual-journalism-loading-spinner{display:block;margin:10pxauto;width:33px;height:33px;max-width:33px;-webkit-animation-name:spinnerRotate;-webkit-animation-duration:5s;-webkit-animation-iteration-count:infinite;-webkit-animation-timing-function:linear;-moz-animation-name:spinnerRotate;-moz-animation-duration:5s;-moz-animation-iteration-count:infinite;-moz-animation-timing-function:linear;-ms-animation-name:spinnerRotate;-ms-animation-duration:5s;-ms-animation-iteration-count:infinite;-ms-animation-timing-function:linear;background-image:url(‘data:image/gif;base64,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’);}Clicktoseecontent:chinese_zim_hiv_ws聯合國認為這要歸功於對避孕套和防止母嬰傳播的大力宣傳。同時艾滋病的治療和援助服務也有進步。60=出生時的期望壽命由於艾滋病的流行,該國的期望壽命在90年代開始下降,從1986年的61.6歲下降到了2003年的43.1歲。@-webkit-keyframesspinnerRotate{from{-webkit-transform:rotate(0deg);}to{-webkit-transform:rotate(360deg);}}@-moz-keyframesspinnerRotate{from{-moz-transform:rotate(0deg);}to{-moz-transform:rotate(360deg);}}@-ms-keyframesspinnerRotate{from{-ms-transform:rotate(0deg);}to{-ms-transform:rotate(360deg);}}.bbc-news-visual-journalism-loading-spinner{display:block;margin:10pxauto;width:33px;height:33px;max-width:33px;-webkit-animation-name:spinnerRotate;-webkit-animation-duration:5s;-webkit-animation-iteration-count:infinite;-webkit-animation-timing-function:linear;-moz-animation-name:spinnerRotate;-moz-animation-duration:5s;-moz-animation-iteration-count:infinite;-moz-animation-timing-function:linear;-ms-animation-name:spinnerRotate;-ms-animation-duration:5s;-ms-animation-iteration-count:infinite;-ms-animation-timing-function:linear;background-image:url(‘data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhIQAhALMAAMPDw/Dw8BAQECAgIICAgHBwcKCgoDAwMFBQULCwsGBgYEBAQ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